Spatial Clustering of Foreign Direct Investment: The Case of Japanese Automotive Suppliers in Mexico


  • María Guadalupe Lugo-Sánchez Universidad de Guadalajara
  • Leo Guzmán-Anaya Universidad de Guadalajara


Palabras clave:

spatial clustering, Japanese foreign direct investment, automotive industry, automotive supplier, Mexico


The arrival of Japanese investment in the Mexican automotive industry has caused an increase in the economic dynamism of the Bajio region, especially since the entry into force of the Mexico-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement in 2005. Previous research has been conducted from different perspectives explaining the spatial distribution and agglomeration of Japanese enterprises in host countries; however, studies that employ measurements of spatial clustering for Japanese firms are still scarce. For the present research, a unique spatial georeferenced database of Japanese automotive suppliers was created to identify the clustering patterns of firms. The results suggest that Japanese automotive supplier firms in Mexico favor spatial proximity. The use of spatial measurements of concentration provides evidence to further understand the presence of agglomeration of Japanese firms in the automotive industry.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

Leo Guzmán-Anaya, Universidad de Guadalajara

Centro Universitario de Ciencias Económico Administrativas


Aoki, M. (1990). Toward an economic model of the Japanese firm. Journal of Economic Literature, 28(1), 1-27.

AP JETRO. (September 13, 2017). [Local Auto Parts Supplier Information in Mexico]. https://www.

Arbia, G., Espa, G., & Giulani, D. (2016). Analysis of Spatial Concentration and Dispersion. In C. Karlsson, M. Andersson, & T. Norman (Eds.), Handbook of Research Methodsand Applications in Economic Geography (pp. 135–157). Edward Elgar Publishing.

Asanuma, B. (1989). Manufacturer-supplier Relationships in Japan and the Concept of Relation Specific Skill. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 3(1), 1-30.

Belderbos, R., & Carree, M. (2002). The Location of Japanese Investment in China: Agglomeration Effects, Keiretsu and Firm Heterogeneity. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 16(2), 194-211. https://doi. org/10.1006/jjie.2001.0491

Cámara Japonesa de Comercio e Industria de México. (9 September 2016). Directorio de la Cámara Japonesa de Comercio e Industria de México A.C.

Cheng, S., & Stough, R. (2006). Location decisions of Japanese new manufacturing plants in China: a discrete-choice analysis, The Annals of Regional Science, 40(2), 369-387.

Clark, P.J., & Evans, C.E. (1954). Distance to Nearest Neighbor as a Measure of Spatial Relationships in Populations, Ecology, 35(4), 445-453. https://

Dziczek, K., Swiecki, B., Chen, Y., Brugeman, V., Schultz, M., & Andrea, D. (2017). NAFTA briefing: Trade benefits to the automotive industry and potential consequences of withdrawal from the agreement. Center for Automotive Research.

Ernst & Young Global Limited. (September 13, 2017). New Government: Implications for the Mexican Automotive Industry. EY Report. https://

Falck, M. (2012). Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Mexico and the Impact of the Global Crisis. Globalization, Competitiveness & Governability, 6(1), 36–54.

Falck, M. & Guzman, L. (2018). Japanese Direct Investment in Mexico’s Trans- port Equipment Sector. Macro Impact and Local Responses. Springer Nature Global Business Reports. (2016). Mexico’s Regional Automotive Report 2016.

Global Business Reports.

Granados, U. (2016). Mexico and Japan, Coping with the Multilateral Trade Crisis. Negocios Promexico, 16-19.

Guzman-Anaya, L. (2015). Localization Factors from Japanese Firms in Automotive-related Industries in Mexico. Procedia Economics and Finance, 30, 265-270.

Guzmán-Anaya, L. (2017). Spatial Determinants of Japanese FDI Location in Mexico. México y la Cuenca del Pacífico, 6(17), 13-35.

Guzman-Anaya, L. (2018). Locational Determinants of Japanese Automo- tive FDI in Mexico: A Spatial Analysis. In M. Falck & L. Guzmán-Anaya (Coord.), Japanese Direct Investment in Mexico’s Transport Equipment Sector. Macro Impact and Local Responses. Springer.

Hayashi, T. (2012). Agglomeration economies and location choice: a study on Japanese automotive suppliers in China. Shougaku ronshu, 81(1), 23-43.

Head, K., Ries, J., & Swenson, D. (1995). Agglomeration benefits and location choice: evidence from Japanese manufacturing investment in the United States. Journal of International Economics, 38(3/4), 223-247.

Japan Bank for International Cooperation. (February 15, 2016). Survey Report on Overseas Business Operations by Japanese Manufacturing Companies.

Japan External Trade Organization. (August 14, 2019). Japan’s Outward and Inward Foreign Direct Investment. statistics/

Jordaan, J. A. (2012). Agglomeration and the Location Choice of Foreign Direct Investment: New Evidence From Manufacturing FDI in Mexico. Es- tudios Económicos, 27(53), 61–97.

Kakihara, T., & Guzmán-Anaya, L. (2014). Factores de Localización de la Inversión Extranjera Directa Japonesa en México. In T. Okabe & S. Ca- rrillo (Coord.), Relaciones México-Japón en el contexto del Acuerdo de Asociación Económica. (pp. 135-173) Juan Pablos Editor.

Keizai, T. (November 19, 2016). Kaigai Shinshutsu Kigyo Soran [Japanese Overseas Investment].

Kondo, K. (2018). Sourcing patterns of export-platform foreign affiliates: The case of Japanese affiliates in Mexico. World Economy, 41(5), 1-20.

Krugman, P. (1991). Geography and Trade. The MIT Press.

Lichtensztejn, S. (2014). La Inversión Extranjera Directa en México (1980-2011) Aspectos Cuantitativos y Cualitativos in Inversión Extranjera en Países Emergentes en Transición. Universidad Veracruzana

Martin, X., Swaminathan, A., & Mitchell, W. (1998). Organizational evolution in the inter-organizational environment: incentives and constraints on international expansion strategy. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43(3), 566-601.

Maurel, F., & Sedillot, B. (1999). A Measure of Geographical Concentration of French Manufacturing Industries. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 29(5), 575-604.

Mexico Business Publishing. (January 22, 2020). Mexico Automotive Review 2019/2020.

Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry. (October 29, 2017). Quarterly Survey of Overseas Subsidiaries.

Nakayama, S., & Asayama, R. (January 25, 2020). Japan Auto Companies Triple Mexican Pay Rather than Move to US. Nikkei Asia. rather-than-move-to-US

International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA). (January 22, 2021). 2020 Statistics.

Reid, N. (1995). Just-in-time inventory control and the economic integration of Japanese-owned manufacturing plants with the county, state and na- tional economies of the United States. Regional Studies, 29(4), 344-355.

Romero, Q. L., & Andrés-Rosales, R. (2014). Técnicas Modernas de Análisis Regional. Plaza y Valdés.

Salas, B. (2016). Japanese Companies in Mexico Set to Top 1,000. Negocios Promexico.

Secretaría de economía. (August 28, 2017). Competitividad y Normatividad / Inversión Extranjera Directa: México.

Secretaría de economía. (January 20, 2020). Registro Nacional de Inversiones Extranjeras. Mexico. nacional-de-inversiones-extranjeras-rnie

Smith, D. F., & Florida, R. (1994). Agglomeration and Industrial Location: An Econometric Analysis of Japanese-Affiliated Manufacturing Establis- hments in Automotive-Related Industries. Journal of Urban Economics. 36(1), 23-41.

Torres-Landa, J. F., Romero, C., & Corcuera-Bain, P. (January 22, 2019). Automotive in Mexico. Hogan Lovells. detail.aspx?g=663197d1-99dc-4486-a873-bc76a451d0c2

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). (2020). World Investment Report 2020. International Production Beyond the Pan- demic. United Nations. wir2020_en.pdf

Wakasugi, R. (2005). The Effects of Chinese Regional Conditions on the Lo- cation Choice of Japanese Affiliates. The Japanese Economic Review, 56(4), 390-407.

Yamawaki, H. (1991). Exports and Foreign Distributional Activities: Evidence on Japanese Firms in the United States. Review of Economics and Statistics, 73(2), 294-300.

Zhou, C., Delios, A., & Yang, J. Y. (2002). Location Determinants of Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 19, 63-86.



2021-04-29 — Actualizado el 2021-04-29